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İngilizce Zamanlar

Present contınuous tense - şimdiki zaman. Simple present tense - geniş zaman. Simple past tense - di’li geçmiş zaman. Future tense - gelecek zaman. Past continuous tense. Be going to - yakın (kesin) gelecek zaman



PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE - ŞİMDİKİ ZAMAN  (yapıyorum)

POSITIVE:  (+) Subject + BE (am is are) + Verb-ING

I am watching tv
I am listening music
She is crying
They are writing a letter
It is bleeding
We are reading a book

Televizyon izliyorum
Müzik dinliyorum
O (kız) ağlıyor
Onlar mektup yazıyor
Kanıyor
Biz kitap okuyoruz

NEGATIVE:  (-) Subject + BE NOT (am not isn’t aren’t) + Verb-ING

I am not using computer
He is not riding a horse
She is not drinking vodka
We aren’t moving
They aren’t stealing

Ben bilgisayar kullanmıyorum
O (erkek) ata binmiyor
O (kız) vodka içmiyor
Biz taşınmıyoruz
Onlar çalmıyor

QUESTION:  (?) BE (am is are) + Subject + Verb-ING ?

Are you coming?
Is she writing a letter?
Are they going?
Am I joking?
Is it working?

Geliyormusun?
O (kız) mektup yazıyor mu?
Onlar gidiyorlar mı?
Şaka mı yapıyorum?
O (nesne) çalışıyor mu?

NEGATIVE QUESTION:  (-?) BE NOT (isn’t aren’t) + Subject + Verb-ING ?

Isn’t it sinking?
Aren’t they going?
Isn’t she sleeping?

Batmıyor mu?
Onlar gitmiyorlar mı?
O (kız) uyumuyor mu?


SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE - GENİŞ ZAMAN (yaparım)

POSITIVE (+): I, you, we, they + verb / (he,she,it + verbs)

I smell a flower
I sit on my armchair
She drives a car
We spend money
They watch movie

NEGATIVE(-): I, you, we, they + don’t verb (he, she, it + doesn’t Verb)

I don’t break a heart
She doesn’t listen to music
They don’t read a book
We don’t understand English
We don’t pay

QUESTION(?): Do + I, you, we, they + verb ? (does +  he, she, it + Verb ?

Does she sell flowers?
Do you teach French?
Do I forgive you?

NEGATIVE QUESTION(-?): Don’t + I, you, we, they + verb? (doesn’t + he, she, it + verb ?

Don’t you understand me?
Doesn’t she grow fruits?
Don’t they come tonight?


SIMPLE PAST TENSE - Dİ’Lİ GEÇMİŞ ZAMAN  (yaptım)

POSITIVE: (+): I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + verb2

NEGATIVE (-): I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + didn’t + verb1

QUESTION (?): Did + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + verb1 ?

NEGATIVE QUEST.(-?): Didn’t + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + verb 1?


(SIMPLE) FUTURE TENSE (GELECEK ZAMAN)  (yapacağım, yaparım)

POSITIVE (+): I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + will + verb

NEGATIVE (-): I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + will not (won’t) + verb

QUESTION (?):  Will + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + verb ?

NEGATIVE - QUESTION(-?):  Won’t + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + verb ?

NOT: İngiliz ingilizcesinde halen kullanılmakta olan biçimiyle bir de will yerine shall‘de kullanılmaktadır.  

 

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (ŞİMDİKİ ZAMANIN HİKAYESİ)  (yapıyordum)

POSITIVE (+):     I, he, she, it + was + verb-ing  /  we, you, they + were + verb-ing

NEGATIVE (-):  I,he,she,it + was not (wasn’t)verb-ing / You,we,they + were not (weren’t) + verb-ing.

QUESTION(?): Was + I, he, she, it + verb-ing ? / Were we, you, they + verb-ing?

NEGATIVE QUESTION (-?):  Wasn’t + I, he, she, it + verb-ing ? / weren’t + we, you, they + verb-ing?      

      

BE GOING TO  - YAKIN (KESİN) GELECEK ZAMAN  (yapacağım)

ÖZNE + BE GOING TO + FİİL (YALIN)  (be: am, is, are)

POSITIVE (+):  I + am going to + verb  /  he, she, it + is going to + verb  /  we, you, they + are going to + verb

NEGATIVE (-):  I+ am not going to + verb  /  he,she,it + isn’t going to + verb / You, we, they + aren’t not going to + verb

QUESTION(?): Am + I + going to + verb  /  Is + he, she, it + going to + verb ? / Are + we, you, they + going to + verb?

NEGATIVE QUESTION (-?): Aren’t + I + going to + verb  /  Isn’t + he, she, it + going to + verb ? / Aren’t + we, you, they + going to + verb?

 

“BE GOING TO”  Kalıbının PAST (Geçmiş zamanda) kullanılışı. (yapacaktım)

Önceden yapılmak istenmiş ancak yapılamamış bir eylemianlatmak için kullanılır.

Cümlede “be” fiilinin geçmiş zaman biçimi olan was ve were ile “going to” kullanılır.

Örnek:

I was going to watch TV yesterday evening.
Dün akşiam TV’de maç izleyecektim.

They were going to buy a new car last week.
Onlar geçen hafta yeni bir araba alacaklardı.

 

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE - SÜREGELEN GELECEK ZAMAN  (Yapıyor olacağım)

POSITIVE(+): I, you, he, she, we, you, they + will be + verb-ing

NEGATIVE(-):  I, you, he, she, we, you, they + won’t be + verb-ing

QUESTION(?): Will + I, you, he, she, we, you, they + be + verb-ing

NEGATIVE QUESTION(-?): Won’t + I, you, he, she, we, you, they + be + verb-ing

Soru Sözcüklü Soru Cümlesi: 
Soru sözcüğü(what) + will + Özne + be + fiil(-ing)

Will I be reading?
Okuyor olacak mıyım?


FUTURE PERFECT TENSE - GELECEK-ÖNCESİ ZAMAN (Yapmış olacağım)

POSITIVE(+):  I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + will have + verb-3

NEGATIVE(-):  I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + won’t have + verb-3

QUESTION(?): will + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + have + verb-3

NEGATIVE QUESTION(-?): won’t + I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + have + verb-3

Soru Sözcüklü Soru Cümlesi:
Soru Sözcüğü + will + özne + have + Fiil-3 (Ne yapmış olacağım?)

 

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE - YAKIN GEÇMİŞ ZAMAN (yaptım, bulundum)

POSITIVE(+): I, you, we, they + have + verb3  /  he, she, it + has + verb3

NEGATIVE(-): I, you, we, you, they + haven’t + verb3 / he, she, it + hasn’t + verb3

QUESTION(?): Have + I, you, you, they + verb3 ? /  Has + he, she, it, we + verb 3 ?

NEGATIVE QUESTION (-?):  Haven’t + I, you, we, you, they + verb3 ?  /  Hasn’t + he, she, it + verb3 ?



PAST PERFECT TENSE - MİŞ’Lİ GEÇMİŞ ZAMAN  (yapmıştım)

POSITIVE(+): I, you, we, they + had + verb3 / he, she, it + had + verb3

NEGATIVE(-): I, you, we, you, they + hadn’t + verb3 / he, she, it + hadn’t + verb3

QUESTION(?): Had + I, you, you, they + verb3 ? / Had + he, she, it, we + verb 3 ?

NEGATIVE QUESTION(-?): Hadn’t + I, you, we, you, they + verb3 ? / Hadn’t + he, she, it + verb3 ?



PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE    (mekteyim, maktayım)  

POSITIVE(+): I, you, we, they + have been + verb-ing / he, she, it + has been + verb-ing

QUESTION(?): have + I, you, we, they + been + verb-ing? / has + he, she, it + been + verb-ing?

NEGATIVE(-): I, you, we, they + haven’t been + verb-ing / he, she, it + hasn’t been + verb-ing

 

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE  (mekteydim, maktaydım)

POSITIVE(+): I, you, we, they, he, she, it + had been + verb-ing

QUESTION(?): had + I, you, we, they, he, she, it + been + verb-ing?

NEGATIVE(-): I, you, we, they, he, she, it + hadn’t been + verb-ing